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Term Paper on Communication Mix

Term Paper Contents:

  1. Term Paper on the Introduction to Communication Mix
  2. Term Paper on the Concept of Communication
  3. Term Paper on the Types of Communication
  4. Term Paper on the Concept of Integrated Marketing Communication
  5. Term Paper on Marketing Communication Process

Term Paper # 1. Introduction to Communication Mix:

Communication mix is a combination of promotional tools that is used by an organization to provide information of products and services to customers. Generally, an organization uses advertising, direct marketing, personal selling, public relations, and sales promotion techniques to make the customers aware about its products and services.

Communication mix includes four types of communication – verbal, nonverbal, written, and visual. An efficient communication mix can fetch not only great profit margins but also keep customers well informed and loyal to a particular product or service. The decisions involved in finalizing communication mix play a very crucial role in determining the success or failure of a product or service in the market.

The article begins by discussing the concept of communication in detail. Further, it provides information about four basic types of communication at length. In addition, the article elaborates on Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) along with its tools. Towards the end, it provides extensive information about the process of marketing communication.

Term Paper # 2. Concept of Communication:

A process that involves the transfer of information from one agent or party to another is called communication. In this process, two agents or parties exchange their opinions, thoughts, beliefs, or information through speech, written content, or signs.

The process of communication includes encoding, channeling, and imparting information by a sender to a receiver with the help of a medium. The receiver receives, decodes, and understands the message and sends his/her feedback to the sender. For example, an organization works as a sender of the message in the form of an advertisement that is received by the customers who in turn act as receivers.

The communication process consists of six basic elements – sender, encoding, message, decoding, receiver, and feedback.

Now, let us discuss the elements of communication in brief:

i. Sender:

It refers to a speaker, writer or communicator who sends the message to another party or agent. Sender is also referred as a source in the process of communication.

ii. Encoding:

It refers to a process that puts the thoughts or idea of sender in a framework of symbols or words.

iii. Message:

It refers to the collection of symbols or words that together convey the intention of the sender. The message is sent by the sender to the receiver.

iv. Decoding:

It refers to the process of deciphering the received message and understanding its intended meaning.

v. Receiver:

It refers to a recipient who receives the sent message. The receiver is also called audience or destination.

vi. Feedback:

It refers to the response of the receiver to the message of the sender. This part of the communication process establishes a two-way communication between the receiver and the sender. It can be an acknowledgement of receiving the message or reply to the message. This acts as the basis for further communication.

Communication act as an important tool for organizations in marketing their products. The communication for marketing the products by an organization involves presenting a set of messages to target market through media. The media can be newspaper or television.

The receivers are the customers reading the newspaper or watching the television. The feedback from the customers is recorded for getting the response and reaction. Feedback enables organization to improve and modify the product, if required.

Term Paper # 3. Types of Communication:

The process of communication can take place by conveying the information, beliefs, messages, and thoughts of an organization to its customers. This can be done with the help of different forms of media, such as mobile, telephone, and e-mail.

The different types of communication are explained below:

1. Verbal Communication:

Verbal communication takes place with the help of sounds, words, and language. The various languages spoken throughout the world have been originated from a number of sounds and gestures. An effective verbal communication is an integral part of business communication that involves people belonging to different cultures, ages, and races.

The verbal communication is broadly classified into two types – interpersonal communication and public speaking. Interpersonal communication takes place between two or more people generally at personal level. On the other hand, public speaking involves single speaker and many audiences where a message about a product is transmitted to a group of people.

Word of mouth is a form of verbal communication, which helps to spread information about a product or service. It is a cost effective and efficient way to spread information as customers play the role of marketers. The customers who have already used the product or availed the service further tell their friends and families about it in a convincing manner. For example, people who enjoy going to the roadside dhabas further tell their known ones about the food available there.

2. Nonverbal Communication:

Non-verbal communication is a kind of communication that involves various characteristics, such as tone of the voice (inflexions), smell, touch, and body motion. Such communication may involve symbols and sign languages that do not require words to be conveyed. For example, finger on lips is a sign of telling the other person to be silent.

Another important aspect of non-verbal communication is body language that involves body gestures and postures. Body postures silently convey many aspects of an individual’s real intentions. For example, clutched hands mean that the person is frustrated. It is said that an individual’s words may be false; however, his/her body language always conveys a true message.

For example, folded arms and crossed legs indicate that an individual is not open in his/her thoughts. Physical contacts, such as handshakes, patting, pushing, and touching denote the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, eye contact, and gestures are different types of communication that help to know about an individual.

Nonverbal communication plays an important role in personal selling. Thus, the sales representatives need to be careful about their body language, expressions, and tone of voice.

3. Written Communication:

Written communication involves the use of e-mails, articles, reports, and memos. An organization can use written communication in many different languages as per the requirement of the business in various regions. The written documents need to be edited a number of times before it is conveyed to the intended individual of the organization. Written communication may also be used for the purpose of informal communication, for example, Short Message Service (SMS).

4. Visual Communication:

Visual communication involves the visual display of information, such as photos, formats, signs, codes, symbols, and designs. For example, televisions, DVDs, CDs, and other audiovisual aids of communication represent visual communication.

It is believed that the visual communication plays a great role to inform, educate, and persuade the audience to buy the products. It is one of the most effective tools of communication, which attracts the attention of individuals, promotes the organization’s image, and provides key information regarding the products.

Term Paper # 4. Concept of Integrated Marketing Communication:

In modern marketing, the term promotion is replaced with the Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC). This is a comprehensive approach that involves complementary use of media to inform, persuade, and remind customers about the organization and its products.

There have been a number of shifts in the field of advertising and media that lead to the development to IMC as one of the most primary strategies for marketers.

The importance of IMC has increased because of the following reasons:

a. Shift from a single advertising tool into multiple forms of communication.

b. Shift from the concept of mass media to the concept of a more specialized media that focuses on a particular segment of audience.

c. Shift of control of market from the manufacturer-dominated market to a retailer-dominated market or customer- controlled market.

d. Shift from limited Internet access to unlimited Internet access.

IMC ensures that all the tools of promotion are integrated well to produce a message targeted to customers. The tools of promotion are also known as elements of communication mix or promotion mix.

Term Paper # 5. Marketing Communication Process:

An organization has the option of using various promotional tools to promote its products. However, it cannot use any tool in any type of market. A proper process should be followed to decide the promotional tools to be used. In addition, the budget should be allocated-efficiently to avoid the wastage of financial resources.

The marketing communication process of an organization is discussed as follows:

1. Identifying the Target Market:

It refers to selecting the segment of customers whose needs can be fulfilled by the offered product or service. It is important for an organization to understand the attitude and behavior of customers belonging to the target market. This is because the success of marketing communication depends upon identifying the right target customers. The customer’s needs, tastes, and buying habits are analyzed during this stage.

2. Determining the Communication Objectives:

It involves setting the objectives to promote the products in the market. Communication objectives should be set in consideration with the marketing strategies of the organizations.

Some of the communication objectives are discussed as follows:

a. Creating awareness regarding the new or improved product.

b. Rectifying and redesigning the communication strategy if customers do not like the product.

c. Focusing on quality and value of the product in the communication messages if customers do not prefer to buy the product because of its high price.

d. Convincing the customers to buy the product by giving a sample of a product as a promotional activity.

3. Developing the Communication Budget:

It refers to estimate the total budget required for the communication purpose.

An organization uses following methods for deciding the marketing communication budget:

i. Objective and Task Method:

It involves determining the objectives to be achieved through communication firstly. After that, the tasks required to complete those objectives are noticed and finance required to complete those tasks is evaluated. Thus, a comprehensive budget for all tasks is finalized.

ii. Percentage of Sales Method:

It refers to a method in which current sales and future sales are estimated and some percentage of the total sales is allocated as the budget for marketing communication.

iii. Competitive Parity Method:

Implies a method in which an organization adopts the communication budget that is decided by its competitors.

4. Designing the Communication Message:

It refers to the activity of deciding content and formatting the message to be given to the customers. The content is a collection of ideas, words, and images conveyed to potential customers. The benefits of a product or service that cater to the needs of customers should remain the central theme of the message.

It is very important to communicate how the product generates a positive emotion or satisfies a particular need of customers. Every element of promotional mix has a few unique format requirements, for example, Web advertising needs high quality graphics, a proper selection of colors, and clarity. Similarly, personal selling includes the use of handouts, pamphlets, and cards.

Following factors affect the communication message design:

i. Message Content:

It specifies the information to be conveyed to the audience. The content of the message carries the various types of appeals to entice the potential customers. For example, rational appeal is used when an organization highlights the benefits and values of the product and treats the customers as logical.

Emotional appeal is used when an organization attracts customer by using positive emotions, such as love, pride, and joy or negative emotions, such as guilt, shame and fear. Moral appeal is used when customers are encouraged to follow the right path, such as advertisements focusing on not to drink before driving, save water, and electricity.

ii. Message Format:

It depends upon the type of medium used for communication. If television is used as a medium, the format of message should be audiovisual. If radio is used as a medium, the messages should be short and crisp with clear pronunciation. Similarly, if print media is used, the text and placement of the message should be appropriate so that it gain the maximum attention of the viewers.