Everything you need to know about the types and classification of advertising media. An advertising medium is the means to deliver an advertising message.
The advertiser needs to select the right message carrier or carriers, keeping in mind the cost, efficiency and specialties of the media.
Effective media selection depends on having an in-depth understanding of each target audience and then matching their characteristics with the different attributes offered by each medium.
Because consumers have different wants, needs, and habits, there are few products and services that can be effectively marketed via only one medium. However, this does not mean that resources should be equally divided among all media.
The types and classification of advertising media can be grouped under:-
1. Print Media (Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, and Catalogues) 2. Electronic and New Media (Television, Radio and Internet) 3. Outdoor Media (Billboards, Posters, Wall Paintings, Tradeshows, and Transit Media) 4. Covert Advertisements (Movies/Television Shows).
Some of the types of advertising media are:-
1. Newspapers 2. Magazines and Trade Journals 3. Radio 4. Television 5. Film Advertising 6. Outdoor Advertising 7. Transit Advertising 8. Direct Mail Advertising 9. Advertising Specialties or Gift Advertising 10. Window Display 11. Internet 12. E-Mail.
Additionally, learn about the merits and demerits of advertising media.
Advertising Media: Types and Classification of Advertising Media
Types of Advertising Media – Available to a Company in India (With Merits and Demerits)
An advertising medium is the means to deliver an advertising message. The advertiser needs to select the right message carrier or carriers, keeping in mind the cost, efficiency and specialties of the media.
In India, the following are the important advertising media available to a company:
Of all the sources of media, the newspaper was considered to be the backbone of the advertising programme and it remains the most powerful message carrier even today.
i. It can give wide coverage.
ii. Public response is quicker.
iii. It ensures regularity and frequency.
iv. Advertisements can be inserted or changed quickly, and
v. It is economical.
i. It has the shortest life.
ii. There is a possibility of wastage in circulation, because it is not restricted to certain groups of readers, and
iii. People read newspapers mainly for news and take only a casual glance at the advertisements. So, it may not serve the purpose.
This is one of the oldest media of advertising. Magazines can be special and general. If it is a special magazine, it will appeal to specific classes of consumers. For example- an advertisement of a computer in Computers Today.
i. Magazines have a longer life than newspapers.
ii. Magazines enjoy national circulation, and
iii. The high quality printing gives greater appeal and offers a more stable impact on the mind.
i. It is costlier than newspaper advertising.
ii. As magazines are published weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly etc., the advertisers cannot communicate their messages as frequently as in other media, like newspapers, radio, television, films, etc.
This media can even appeal to illiterate people. The advertisements can be repeated in different programmes to communicate with different types of people. For example- announcements in between movie songs are popular.
i. This media is economical.
ii. A person can listen to the radio, regardless of his or her activities and so the potential audience of radio is much larger as compared to other media.
i. Radio visualizes only through words, music and sound effects. The products that need visual display or demonstration cannot be advertised through this medium.
ii. This media has low memory value, because people remember the things that they see longer than things that they hear.
iii. Repeated messages are boring, and
iv. Radio advertisements have a very short life and may be missed by many listeners.
In India, television was first commissioned in 1959 and commercial telecasting started only in 1976 and colour transmission in 1982. This is a specialised media as it provides a scientific synchronization of sound, light, motion, colour and immediacy that no other medium does, except film.
i. This medium is an ideal medium to show products, its uses and the products can also be demonstrated.
ii. The television presents things and events as they happen and so advertisements are more creative and persuasive.
iii. Message and geographical selectivity is possible.
i. It is costlier and so this medium is out of the reach of small and medium sized units.
ii. Commercial messages have the shortest life span.
Business units prepare short films or slides, which are shown before the start of regular movie shows or during the intermission. Along with the film there is a running commentary on the features, uses and superiority of the product.
i. The advertising message lasts longer through this media, product demonstration is explicitly done, impressive and easily convincing. Moreover, it has a dramatic impact on viewers.
ii. The cinema audience consists of all segments of the society and so it affords a high degree of selection and flexibility. Moreover, the advertiser has the advantage of selecting the audience by place, to meet its differing needs.
iii. This medium has the special feature of mass publicity, because a theatre can accommodate 300 to 400 persons per show.
iv. Film advertising cuts across the barriers of literacy and language and reaches the audience faster. So, the message exposed is not wasted.
v. Magazines and newspapers may not be appealing to the rural population, but films are a reliable medium there.
i. This advertising is costly and the message is usually ignored by people, because before the start of the film or during the interval when the advertisement is shown, only a few people are present in the theatre.
ii. Film advertising is costly and so only a few firms can use this medium. Moreover, it lacks flexibility and timeliness and its effectiveness cannot be measured.
This is also known as position or indirect advertising. This media reaches people when they are out doors, or travelling and not when they are at home or office. Here, the advertising message is not delivered to the audience, like in print and broadcast media, but is placed in strategic locations, where it is exposed to the audience on the move.
This media catches the attention of people within a split second. Its effectiveness can be seen from the fact that 97 per cent of the total adult population moves out doors every day. Posters, painted displays, electrical signs, travelling displays and sky-writing are popular media of outdoor advertising.
i. This medium maintains continued appeal for a longer period of time and is open to all classes of society without any expenditure on their part. Through frequency and repetition, it can achieve penetration.
ii. This medium has greater flexibility with regard to area, time and individual requirements. It possesses geographical flexibility, permitting the promotion of products in defined areas or markets, and
iii. Outdoor advertising has a variety of media vehicles to carry the message. Buying space is not really difficult, because there is a continuous growth in cities, highways, vehicles and traffic that provides inbuilt additional space.
i. Outdoor advertising only serves as only reminder. It reminds the viewers of the value of the goods and services so advertised. The message cannot be long, as there is limited space, a moving audience and changing market conditions. It can therefore act best as a supplementary media. The brevity of the message makes this medium unsuitable for introduction of new products or services, thus limiting its use as a supplementary medium.
ii. It is impossible to measure the results of outdoor media advertising, unlike in press, broadcast and telecast, where one can speak of readership, listenership and viewership in exact terms and which helps in expressing the impact of advertising on the audience. The basic reason is that the audience pays for these mediums but in the case of outdoor media, there is no special expenditure involved. Therefore, no advertiser can say with certainty that his poster or a sign board or sky-writing has been seen or read by a fixed number of people in precise terms.
These are also known as travelling displays. It stands for all types of advertising signs or displays used in trains, buses, cars, autos, trucks and other such transportation vehicles, and the terminals or stations from which they operate.
i. It is economical and can cover a wide geographical area.
ii. This medium can reach pedestrians and travellers and so has a high readership ability.
Smallness in size and the problem of space availability are the limitations of this medium.
This is the advertising medium wherein the advertiser sends messages directly to target customers by mail. The message may be mailed in a variety of forms, say, letters, circulars, email, catalogues, folders, brochures, etc., which may be informatics, persuasive and act as reminders.
i. It is economical and the most personal and selective media. It reaches only prospective customers and has the minimum amount of waste in circulation.
ii. The advertisement copy can be very flexible and can provide detailed information about the product or service, creating a lasting expression. Its effectiveness is measurable and it has the maximum personal appeal.
i. The message has to be brief and cannot be confidential. So, it may not turn out to be attractive as expected.
ii. It is difficult to prepare an up-two words mailing list, as continuous changes are required. So, business firms are now issuing private journals, to inform customers about the new arrivals periodically. For example- Food World has its private journal the “Food Worlder”.
iii. This medium has only limited coverage and is useful for advertising to a small and known group of people.
This is a medium that employs the use of useful articles, known as advertising specialties or gift novelties which are imprinted with the name, address and the sales message of the advertiser. For example- pens, key chains, diaries, ash trays, bottle openers, memo-pads, folders, etc.
These items act as gifts, when distributed to the selected audience free of cost or obligation. The advertiser hopes strongly that the recipient is likely to be influenced favourably to buy in future, as he is reminded of the company every time he or she looks at the gift.
It has a reminder value.
It works out much costlier than other mediums and accommodates only limited information with very limited circulation.
The dictionary meaning of the word ‘display’ is, “arranging something for view”. Therefore, display advertising is the systematic arrangement of samples of saleable products, to catch the imagination and attention of people. Every retailer puts certain selected products in glass windows, in attractive styles in front of the shop.
Similarly, manufacturers and wholesalers maintain big showrooms in main markets, to advertise their products and to attend to the queries of prospective buyers. This is an on-the spot method of advertising, acts as a silent salesman and promotes impulsive buying. The success of this medium depends on the factors of suitable location easy accessibility, accommodation, working staff and the testimonials of satisfied customers.
Advertising on the internet is quite popular these days, for worldwide publicity.
Types of Advertising Media – Print Media, Electronic and New Media, Outdoor Media and Covert Advertisements
Type # 1. Print Media (Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, and Catalogues):
Print media has always been a very popular means of advertising due to its wide coverage and low cost. It includes all forms of printed literature like newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, etc. The advertising space in newspapers and magazines is sold on basis of area covered, placement (front page/middle/last page) and the readership of the publication.
The more the popularity of a particular publication, the higher would be the cost of advertising in it. So the price of advertising space on a national newspaper like The Times of India or Hindustan Times would be much higher than that of a regional newspaper.
Type # 2. Electronic and New Media (Television, Radio and Internet):
Media like television, radio and internet are also known as broadcast media. These are highly successful vehicles of advertising as they combine audio-visual elements. The cost of advertising on television depends upon the time of broadcast, the viewership of the channel and the duration of the advertisement.
Radio advertisements are a good choice for small organizations with regional operations who broadcast their advertisements on the FM channels which have huge fan followings. Internet is the emerging new medium which has huge potential for reaching potential customers from all over the world. Online advertisements have attractive images and animation to entice users to check them out.
Type # 3. Outdoor Media (Billboards, Posters, Wall Paintings, Tradeshows, and Transit Media):
Outdoor advertising is done to attract those customers who are outside their homes. It is targeted towards those people who are traveling on road, relaxing in parks, roaming in a market, etc. the most common tools used are billboards, posters, wall paintings, etc. Some companies arrange tradeshows, exhibitions and events to attract the attention of passers-by.
Type # 4. Covert Advertisements (Movies/Television Shows):
Covert advertisements are hidden advertisements which are embedded as a part of a movie or an event. These are not evident as a commercial advertisement, but the brand is subtly showcased in the programme. For example- ICICI bank was covertly advertised in the Bollywood movie Baghban, Coca Cola was promoted in Hindi movie Taal.
Types of Advertising – With Examples
Firms can advertise their products through various means. The most effective advertising varies with the product and target market of concern.
Most types of advertising can be classified as follows:
(vii) Direct mail
(ix) Outdoor ads
(x) Transportation ads
(xi) Specialty ads
Many small and large businesses use newspaper advertising. It is a convenient way to reach a particular geographic market. Because many stores generate most of their sales from consumers within a 10-mile radius, they use a local newspaper for most of their ads.
Newspaper ads can be inserted quickly, allowing firms to advertise only a few days after the idea was created. Best Buy, Publix, and other stores frequently use newspapers as a means of advertising.
Because most magazines are distributed nationwide, magazine advertising is generally used for products that are distributed nationwide. Some magazines such as BusinessWeek have the flexibility to include regional ads that are inserted only in magazines distributed to a certain area.
An advantage of radio advertising is that, unlike magazines and newspapers, it talks to the audience However, it lacks any visual effect. Because most radio stations serve a local audience, radio ads tend to focus on a particular local area. Furthermore, the particular type of music or other content on each radio station attracts consumers with similar characteristics. Therefore, each station may be perceived to reach a particular target market.
Television ads combine the advantages of print media (such as newspapers and magazines) and radio. They can talk to the audience and provide a visual effect. Ads can be televised locally or nationwide. McDonald’s, Sears, Duracell, and AT&T commonly run a commercial more than 20 times m a given week.
Although television ads are expensive, they reach a large audience and can be highly effective. Some large firms, such as McDonald’s and AT&T, run more than 1,000 television ads per year.
Firms attempt to use television advertising during shows that attract their target market. For example, lipstick and fashion firms may focus on the annual Academy Awards because more than 40 million women are watching.
Beer and snack food producers focus on football games, which attract mostly men. A one- minute ad during the Super Bowl costs more than $3 million. The rates are much cheaper for ads that are only televised locally or are run on less-popular shows.
In recent years, many firms (including Procter & Gamble) have created infomercials, or commercials that are televised separately rather than within a show. Infomercials typically run for 30 minutes or longer and provide detailed information about a specific product promoted by the firm.
Together, television, radio, magazines, and newspapers account for more than 50 percent of total advertising expenditures.
The Internet has become a popular way for firms to advertise their products and services. It is a form of non-personal communication that can create awareness and persuade the customer.
Initially, firms questioned whether people surfing the Internet would pay attention to ads. There is now much evidence that the Internet can be an effective way to advertise. Consider the case of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, which experimented with an ad on some financial websites offering a free sample of Excedrin (one of its products) to all viewers who typed in their name and address next to the ad on the website.
Bristol-Myers Squibb expected that it would receive 10,000 responses at the very most over a one- month period. Yet, in one month, 30,000 people responded.
Thus, the Internet ad experiment was a success. Furthermore, the Internet ads cost less than traditional methods of advertising. Other firms have experienced similar results with ads on the Internet.
Today, Internet advertising can potentially reach a large audience. Yahoo!, AOL, and MSN are viewed by 50 million people a day. In 2004, firms spent about $4 billion for paid advertising on the Internet. Firms such as Microsoft and IBM spend more than $10 million per year on technology-based Internet ads.
Some firms use their own websites to advertise all of their products. When a firm advertises its products on its own website, it attempts to ensure that the website is easily accessible to potential customers, both in the United States and in foreign countries. Some websites are very visible because they are given high priority by search engines, but the number of competing websites is making it difficult for some firms to reach potential customers.
For example, more than a million websites are listed in response to a Web search for “clothing,” so a firm that wants to sell clothing on the Internet may not receive much attention.
A firm can use various strategies to ensure that its website is noticed. First, a website that sells unusual items may be more visible because it may fit specific searches. For example, a website that is focused on ski clothing would have a better chance of being noticed by customers who do a search for “ski clothing” than a general clothing store, because the website fits that specific search.
Second, some firms pay the search engines to receive a higher priority in response to a search term. These sponsored sites appear at the top of the list of all websites that fit a particular search term.
The firm may pay the search engine a monthly fee for this priority or pay per click (each time the search engine has led someone to click on the website to visit it) Third, a firm may hire a Web marketing firm to help it receive higher priority from the search engines.
The search engines determine the order of the websites provided in response to a search term by using various criteria such as the number of times that the search terms are used on the website’s pages.
By ensuring that its website meets the criteria, a firm can improve the position of its website on the list. Fourth, a firm can arrange link exchanges from its website to other websites that serve similar types of customers.
For example a website focused on selling skis may be willing to insert a link on its site that will direct viewers to a website focused on selling ski clothing. In return, the website focused on selling ski clothing will insert a link on its site that will direct viewers to the website focused on selling skis.
Firms may also promote their products on other websites that are commonly viewed by people who may purchase their products. One of the most popular types of Internet ads is a “banner ad,” which is usually rectangular and placed at the top of a Web page. Toyota, which frequently uses banner ads, found that more than 150,000 Internet users typed in their name and address next to the ad to get more information in a 12-month period.
More than 5 percent of those users purchased a Toyota. An alternative type of Internet ad is the “button ad,” which takes the viewer to the website of the firm advertised there if the viewer clicks on the ad. When a firm advertises on a website other than its own, it may pay a set fee to the firm that owns the website.
Alternatively, the fee may be based on the number of clicks (by viewers) on the ad itself (to learn more about the advertised product) or on the number of orders of the product by viewers (if the ad results in viewers ordering the product).
Some film producers spend millions of dollars on websites dedicated to promote films that they produce. They attract potential customers who visit the websites, and attempt to create interest among people who frequently use the Internet.
Many firms send e-mail messages to their customers to promote products. Some e-mail promotions are general and apply to all customers on the e-mail list. Other e-mail promotions are personalized to fit the customer’s interests.
For example, Amazon(dot)com sends promotions about specific books to customers who have previously expressed an interest on that topic. Marriott International sends promotions about hotels m specific locations to customers who have previously expressed an interest in those locations.
(vii) Direct Mail:
Direct-mail advertising is frequently used by local service firms, such as realtors, home repair firms, and lawn service firms. It is also used by cosmetic firms (including Avon Products), as well as numerous clothing firms that send catalogs directly to homes.
If a firm plans to advertise through the mail, it should first obtain a mailing list that fits its target market. For example, Ford Motor Company sends ads to previous Ford customers. Talbots (a clothing firm) sends ads to a mailing list of its previous customers.
Another common approach is for a firm to purchase the subscriber list of a magazine that is read by its targeted consumers. Many mailing lists can be separated by state or even zip code. As the price of paper and postage has increased, advertising by direct mail has become more expensive.
Telemarketing uses the telephone for promoting and selling products. Many local newspaper firms use telemarketing to attract new subscribers. Phone companies and cable companies also use telemarketing to sell their services.
(ix) Outdoor Ads:
Outdoor ads are shown on billboards and signs. Such ads are normally quite large because consumers are not likely to stop and look at them closely. Vacation-related products and services use outdoor advertising. For example, Disney World ads and Holiday Inn Hotel ads appear on billboards along many highways.
(x) Transportation Ads:
Advertisements are often displayed on forms of transportation, such as buses and the roofs of taxi cabs. These ads differ from the outdoor ads just described because they are moving rather than stationary. The ads generally attempt to provide a strong visual effect that can be recognized by consumers while the vehicle is moving.
(xi) Specialty Ads:
Other forms of non-media advertising are also possible, such as T-shirts, hats, and bumper stickers. T-shirts advertise a wide variety of products, from shoes such as Adidas and Nike to soft drinks such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi.
Types of Advertising Media – Newspaper, Television, Internet, Radio, Movie, Rental Video and Billboards
In terms of overall advertising expenditures, media advertising is dominated by newspaper and television, which are of comparable size in terms of sales. Billboards and radio follow some way behind, with cinema representing a specialist medium. Although the Internet sales still constitute a small fraction of the total sales, the role that the Internet plays as a new medium has been growing rapidly.
Effective media selection depends on having an in-depth understanding of each target audience and then matching their characteristics with the different attributes offered by each medium. Because consumers have different wants, needs, and habits, there are few products and services that can be effectively marketed via only one medium. However, this does not mean that resources should be equally divided among all media.
Rather, marketers must test each medium on an ongoing basis to ensure that financial resources are utilized in the most productive manner possible. The proportion of broadcast to mail to print will vary by product, market segment, and many other variables. For example, seniors tend to rely more on print and mail. They’re used to reading to gather the information they need. Generation Xers, on the other hand, are less likely to be suspicious of what they see on television or on the Internet.
1. Newspaper / Magazine:
In this medium, spending is dominated by the national and local newspapers, the latter taking almost all the classified advertising revenue. The magazines and trade or technical journal markets are about equal in size to each other, but are less than half that of the newspaper sectors.
This is normally the most expensive medium, and as such is generally only open to the major advertisers, although some cable and specialized channels offer more affordable packages to their local advertisers. Television offers by far the widest coverage, particularly at peak hours (roughly 7 to 10:30 P.M.) and especially of family audiences.
Offering sight, sound, movement, and color, it has the greatest impact, especially for those products or services where a demonstration is essential, because it combines the virtues of both the storyteller and the demonstrator. However, to be effective these messages must be kept simple—and have the impact to overcome the surrounding distractions of family life.
Because of the explosive growth of cable TV channels with specialized programs, such as CNN News, MTV, and the Arts and Entertainment Channel, it has become possible to “narrowcast” messages to more targeted audiences. Many channels offer local advertising time slots for regional trials or promotions (including test marketing). In Europe, TV transmission may reach far beyond national borders.
To the delight of West (now western) German producers right after the German unification, many of their products were well known in east (now eastern) Germany, even though they were unavailable there. Everyone in eastern Germany had seen them on TV from western Germany.
Price structures for television advertising can be horrendously complicated, with the “rate card” (the price list) offering different prices for different times throughout the day; this is further complicated by a wide range of special promotional packages and individual negotiations. It is truly the province of the specialist media buyer.
Satellite television is now considered to be the medium of the future in many developed countries, just as cable television represented the future a decade ago. The promise of satellite television has been largely fulfilled in the United States, where the average household can now tune in to 31 channels. However, it has yet to achieve comparable levels of penetration in other countries.
Advertisers in Hong Kong report problems with reaching their intended Chinese target audience. Hong Kong advertisers in the past were confident that they could reach millions of Chinese viewers in the south of China. Now, however, many Chinese stations are “illegally retransmitting the Hong Kong stations’ programs and inserting their own advertising slots.”
Another increasingly popular use of television is the infomercial. Featuring such celebrity hosts as Dionne Warwick, Jane Fonda, and others, small companies and Fortune 500 companies such as Apple Computer, Bank of America, Ford Motor Company, and Texaco have begun using infomercials in record numbers. Sales from infomercials reached $1.5 billion in 1998. Infomercials are unparalleled in their ability to generate consumer demand, qualified leads, and immediate sales for a fraction of the budget needed to create an advertising campaign around a 30-second commercial spot.
Internet advertising—which began in 1994 when the first banner ads were sold on Hotwired—is coming of age. Online audiences are growing, often at the expense of other media. The technology is advancing rapidly, and many major advertisers have realized that the Internet should form a key part of their advertising strategies. Banner ads are the most popular Internet advertising format.
Online advertising is expected to make up more than 8 percent of advertisers’ total marketing efforts by 2004, accounting for about $22 billion in spending in the United States. Currently, advertisers’ devote about 1.3 percent of their overall advertising budgets to Internet ads, for a total of about $2.8 billion.
Based on interviews with 50 companies, most of which have a significant Web presence and include companies such as America Online and Yahoo! that have a big stake in the growth of Internet banner advertising, marketing executives expect their Internet spending to leapfrog Yellow Pages and magazine advertising spending, trailing only television, newspapers, and direct mail in popularity for advertising spending.
Although the advertisers believe that cyberspace advertising is effective, the major challenge is how to measure the results. Furthermore, ethical issues concerning liquor and cigarette ads have reemerged. Cyberspace advertisers have begun to track how computer users interact with the cyberspace messages. For example, Nielsen Media Research, Yankelovish Partners, and ASI Market Research have a strategic partnership, called Anywhere Online, to develop research service online. This online service will measure the use, appeal, and impact of advertising and commercial ventures on the Internet.
In 1996, research by Millward Brown Interactive found that exposure to Internet banner ads generated greater awareness than television or print advertising. However, their impact on consumers’ purchase decision is not well known. As Internet advertising budgets grow, the pressure is intensifying for advertisers, media owners, and agencies to identify and develop formats, technologies, and creative approaches that will deliver the results.
To boost the effectiveness of Internet advertising, new formats, including pop-up signs and microsites, are being deployed. Rich media—the combination of high-grade graphics, audio, and interactive capabilities—are being used to create more engaging, memorable, or intrusive advertising. But greater use of rich media does not mean that the standard banner is redundant. Banners can be effective as signals. They can be a first step into advertising in this medium. Advertisers, agencies, and media owners must consider whether the audience is able to download and view rich media.
The use of radio has increased greatly in recent years, with the granting of many more licenses. It typically generates specific audiences at different times of the day—for example, adults at breakfast, housewives thereafter, and motorists during rush hours. It can be a very cost-effective way of reaching these audiences (especially as production costs can also be much cheaper), although the types of message conveyed will be limited by the lack of any visual elements and may have a “lightweight” image.
5. Movie and Rental Video:
Although the numbers in the national audience are now small, this may be the most effective medium for extending coverage to the younger age groups, because the core audience is aged 15 to 24. Additionally, a captive audience, boredom, and lack of suitable alternatives create a tendency to watch the ads. Similarly, thanks to the explosive growth of rental movie business, such as Blockbuster, rental movie videos are also used increasingly as a mobile advertising tool.
This is something of a specialist medium, which is generally used in support of campaigns using other media. On the other hand, some advertisers, particularly those in brewing and tobacco, have successfully made significant use of the medium, although, to achieve this, they have developed the requisite expertise to make efficient use of its peculiarities.
The best sites are typically reserved for the long-term clients, mainly the brewers and tobacco companies (hence one reason for their success in the use of the medium), so that new users may find this a relatively unattractive medium. One interesting public policy question regarding billboards is the large number of alcohol, particularly beer, companies that use billboards to advertise. The billboards could be interpreted as encouraging drivers to drink while driving.
Types of Advertising Media – Press, Circulars, Catalogues, Posters, Billboards, Electric Signs, Radio, Television, Films, Exhibitions and Television Commercial
The media in current use may be classified as follows:
1. Press –
(a) Newspaper – city, small-town, Sunday, daily, weekly, English or Vernacular.
(b) Magazine – General or class, illustrated or otherwise, English or Vernacular.
(c) Trade and Technical Journals – Also Industrial Year Books, Commercial Industrial and Telephone Directories.
2. Direct Mail – circulars, catalogues leaflets, booklets, folders and other printed matter.
3. Outdoor – Posters and bills or hoardings on railway station walls, outside commercial buildings, bases, printed and electric signs on buildings or sky-writing.
4. Radio and Television – Spot, Sectional or national broadcasts. Movie slides and films, metal signs attached to trees, fences, electricity poles, or other prominent places, store cards, calendars, blotters, diaries, theatres, schools, plants, tours, exhibitions.
5. Publicity – Movie slides and films, metal signs attached to trees, fences, electricity poles, or other prominent places, store cards, calenders, blotters, diaries, theatres, schools, plants, tours, exhibitions.
6. House-to-house – Sampling, couponing.
7. Industrial and Cinematograph films.
Type of Advertising Media # 1. Press:
No two media are alike. Each must be studied for its suitability to the task. Press and now television are the most patent forces in advertising. However, the value of any press media depends upon its circulation, in terms of figures as well as quality and several other factors such as periodicity of issue and flexibility. Similarly, television message will reach those who watch the television. Quality shows the class of people who read and those who view the television.
Quality often yields better results than quantity. The dominant idea of the newspaper is news. The reading is hurried. The advertisement must, therefore be striking, informal and timely. The newspaper is of great importance as an advertising medium in India. It reaches all classes of the population. Its timeliness is another advantage. A campaign can be started or stopped quickly. Selectivity of markets is possible, as campaigns can be limited to a select area. Newspapers offer great opportunity for repetition and classified advertisement.
Magazine advertising aims to give wide publicity to firms’ name and brands and to create prestige for a product by the impression of extensive and permanent connection with a respectable company. There is great chance of picture advertising in a magazine. High class goods, luxuries and conveniences can be profitably advertised in them.
The Technical and Trade Press is dominated by professional or vocational interest. The audience is usually small but select, technically well informed, in earnest, and influential e.g., medical men, consulting engineers, architects. The nature of appeal to them should be informative on the highest plane of accuracy as to facts.
Type of Advertising Media # 2. Circulars and Catalogues:
An important adjunct to the press is circulating or direct advertising or mailing. The circulating material can be used for supply and gathering information. A short letter, worded in attractive language may work wonders with a busy man. It is a personal communication to an individual and is thus superior to a newspaper or a magazine. A catalogue aims at supplying all information needed to place an order. It is a silent but effective salesman for the house.
Mailing cards act as a form of business insurance rather than as means of actually making sale. It acts as a reminder. Folders usually have perforated reply cards attached or separate reply cards inserted. Booklets are used to present the talking points of the product in detail.
Type of Advertising Media # 3. Posters and Bill Boards:
For the sale of articles of common utility poster is one of the most suitable types of media. Posters must be pasted on walls or on boards set up in thoroughfares. A bill board of a hoarding is an extension of a poster. It is bigger, more elaborate and attractive. A poster or a bill board is, at most, a picture in colours, with an epigram, reduced to its lowest terms. It is a name or a symbol printed large. Seen but for a moment, it must convey the message in a flash.
Type of Advertising Media # 4. Electric Signs:
Electric signs are either still or moving. The still signs have the attraction of light and colour, while the latter also have the attribute of movement. The main objection against electric signs is their heavy cost, especially in case of mammoth signs. They can be used only by very large firms of repute which wish to keep the product constantly in public mind.
Type of Advertising Media # 5. Radio:
Radio advertising is well established now. Messages are broadcast from the Vibhid Bharti Channel or Commercial Service of All India Radio. These are mainly broadcast along with popular programme of music, mostly film songs. Radio advertisements reach a vast section of the population. People can listen to them even when they are busy in other activities.
Type of Advertising Media # 6. Television:
Television is the youngest but fast growing medium of advertisement. It makes its appeal, both to the eye and ear. Demonstration is the common feature of television commercial. Only well established companies with vast funds can make use of it as it is very costly.
Type of Advertising Media # 7. Films and Exhibitions:
Large firms make extensive use of films, either in two minute films is the Cinema house, or an industrial film exhibition in industrial exhibitions and other suitable places. The film incorporates the history of the firm and a trip to all the sections of the works, and the technical processes involved from the raw material stage to the finished product ready for sale.
In addition to those principle media, there are many more methods of publicity which have been used with advantage by numerous firms. Gift schemes for increasing sales are already on the market. The prize scheme by means of competition for a slogan or a name. Display advertising is also very important. It helps the dealer to move the goods from the shelves in to the hands of the consumers. Lastly, we come to the advertising medium afforded by Direct Mail which helps sell goods of the mail order advertiser.
Type of Advertising Media # 8. Television Commercial:
Ever since the television medium began accepting advertising commercials in January, 1976, there has been progressive use of television. In 1983, the share of TV in total advertising business of Rs.375 crore was a mere 5 per cent. In 1987, this share rose to 21 per cent out of a total business of Rs.700 crore in spite of a steep 200 per cent hike in TV Tariff rates in March, 1987. In the current year (1990), the TV’s share is expected to be 30 per cent of Rs.1000 crore advertising business.
The biggest loser has been the Cinema from a share of over 9 per cent of the total advertising business in 1983, it fell to 2 per cent and it is expected to come down to one per cent in 1990. The share of advertising business of Press slipped from 77 per cent in 1983 to about 70 per cent in 1987, and estimates place the figure at about 64 per cent in 1990. In spite of the TV commercial being very costly, TV, which has already achieved a big success in consumer goods advertising, is going to grow faster in advertising earnings.